Ecommerce Law Links

The links below provide a broad supplement to the MSEC program and will be particularly useful for the course 46-740, Ecommerce Law and Regulation. They will lead you to articles, tutorials and white papers relating to all aspects of Ecommerce law.  For unfamiliar terminology you may also want to consult the Hyperdictionary of Electronic Commerce Law.  This page is maintained by and is still under construction. Please report omissions and dead links to the author.  © 1999 Michael I. Shamos.

Topics covered:

Commercial Transactions
Computer Security

Consumer Protection
Criminal Law

Digital Signatures
Electronic Payments

Electronic Voting

Intellectual Property
International Law



Uniform Acts

Advertising and Marketing on the Internet (FTC)

Banner Ads
Excite, Netscape Sued Over Banner Ads (SearchEngineWatch)

Deep Linking
Hyperlinks, Frames and Meta-Tags: An Intellectual Property Analysis (Kuester & Nieves)
Linking Rights (Brad Templeton)
Unlawful Linking and Framing (Tanya Rose)

Federal Trade Commission

Lists of Links
Advertising Law (John Marshall Law School)
Advertising/Consumer Protection (ABA)
Sale of Services (ABA)

Internet Advertising/Marketing Law Report
Internet Advertising Report

Engage Technologies

Statutes and Regulations
Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act (15 U.S.C. §6101)
Telemarketing Sales Rule (16 C.F.R. §310)


Antitrust and Competition (U.S. Dep't. of Justice)
Antitrust and the Internet (Sugarman, Rogers, Barshak & Cohen)

Microsoft Case
Antitrust and Microsoft (From Telecom Information Resources on the Internet)
Antitrust Case Filings: U.S. v. Microsoft (U.S. Dept. of Justice)
Government vs. Microsoft (I.T. Works)
U.S. Justice Department Antitrust Division


Auction Sites
ONSALE travel auctions
Yahoo! auctions

FTC Consumer Alert! Online Auctions: Going, Going, Gone
New Hampshire online auction licensing


Cyberlaundering (R. Mark Bortner)
End of Ordinary Money Part II (J. Orlin Grabbe)
National Check Fraud Center
Suspicious Internet Banking (FDIC)

Electronic Cash
Electronic Cash Under Current Banking Laws (d'Alelio & Collins)

Lists of Links
Payment Systems/Banking (ABA)

Online Banking
Internet and Online Banking
Online Banking (CyberSpace Law Center)


Internet as a Source of Regulatory Arbitrage (A. Michael Froomkin)Censorship and the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (From Telecom Information Censorship and the Net (Yahoo)
Cyber-Liberties (ACLU)
Net Censorship in Australia
Free Expression (CyberSpace Law Center)
On-Line Censorship in the States (ACLU)
Resources on the Internet

Readings on Computer Communications and Freedom of Expression (MIT)

Speech Which Causes Injury (David Loundy)

Lists of Links
Censorship on the Internet

AdultWebLaw (Law relating to adult sites)
Child Pornography statute (18 U.S.C. §§2251-2258)
Filtering Facts
Obscene and Indecent Material (David Loundy)
Regulation of Pornography and Child Pornography on the Internet (Yaman Akdeniz, UK)

Commercial Transactions

Clickwrap licenses
Electronic Contracting: The Use of "Clickwrap" Licenses (Perkins Coie)

Lists of Links
Sale of Goods (ABA)
U.C.C.-Contracts (Cyberspace Law Center)

Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act
Text of Act

Uniform Electronic Transactions Act
ETA Forum
Text of Act

Computer Security

Lists of Links
Crypto Links (Bruce Schneier, legal)
Readings on Encryption and National Security (MIT)

Consumer Protection

Consumer Protection: E-Commerce and the Internet (FTC)

Lists of Links
Advertising/Consumer Protection (ABA)

Criminal Law

Lists of Links
Computer/High-Tech Crime and Related Sites
CyberCrimes (CyberSpace Law Center)
Cybercrimes Against Persons
Web Psycho Tales

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (18 U.S.C. §1030)
Economic Espionage Act (18 U.S.C. §1831)
Texas Computer Crime Law (Texas Penal Code §33.01)


Law Professors' Letter Opposing Mandatory Key Escrow

Lists of Links
CyberSpace Law Center: Cryptography

Export Regulations
Wassenaar Arrangement

Digital Signatures

Electronic Signature Legislation (Smedinghoff & Bro)

Law Student's Guide to the Future of Transactions on the Internet (C. Keefe)
Misplaced Priorities: The Utah Digital Signature Act and Liability Allocation in a Public Key Infrastructure (Biddle)
Role Of Certification Authorities In Consumer Transactions (ILPF)

Lists of Links
CyberSpace Law Center: Digital Signatures

Digital Signatures (From Telecom Information Resources on the Internet)
Index of State Electronic Authentication Developments

PKI Page (Stefan Kelm's page on digital signatures)
Summary of Electronic Commerce and Digital Signature Legislation (McBride Baker & Coles)

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (S. 761, 2000)

Electronic Payments

Electronic Cash
CyberSpace Law Center: E-Cash Companies
Selected U.S. Legal Issues in Issuance of Electronic Money (JIBC)

E-money mini-FAQ (Jim Miller)

Lists of links
CyberSpace Law Center: Gambling
Money - Past, Present & Future (List of Roy Davis)

Electronic Voting

White Papers
California Internet Voting Task Force Report (1/18/00)


Gambling on the Internet (Aaron Craig, PDF format)

Gambling on the Internet (Cynthia R. Janower)
Gambling on the Internet - The Conflicts Between Technology, Policy & Law (Anthony Cabot)
Internet Gambling Warning (Att'y. Gen'l. of Kansas)

Lists of Links
Public Law/Gaming (ABA)


Martindale-Hubbell Lawyer Locator

Law Journals (U.S.)
Albany Law Journal of Science & Technology
Berkeley Technology Law Journal
BitLaw: A Resource on Technology Law
Computer Law Review & Technology Journal (SMU)
CyberLaw Journal (NY Times)
Cyberspace Law Journal (Univ. of Kansas)
Electronic Commerce & Law Report (BNA)
Harvard Journal of Law and Technology (abstracts only, some full text)
IDEA: the journal of law and technology (Franklin Pierce)
Intellectual Property and Technology Forum (Boston College)
Intellectual Property & Technology Law Review (Univ. of Pittsburgh)
Internet Lawyer (Abstracts only)
John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law
Journal of Internet Banking & Commerce
Journal of Internet Law (Gray Cary Ware & Freidenrich LLP)
Journal of Online Law (William & Mary)
Journal of Science & Technology Law (Boston Univ.)
Journal of Technology Law & Policy (Univ, of Florida)
Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review
Richmond Journal of Law and Technology
Rutgers Computer & Technology Law Journal
Stanford Technology Law Review
UCLA Bulletin of Law & Technology
University of Dayton Journl of Law & Technology
Virginia Journal of Law and Technology
West Virginia Journal of Law & Technology

Law Journals (non-U.S.)
Computer und Recht (Germany)
Digital Technology Law Journal (Murdoch Univ., Australia)
International Journal of Law and Information Technology (Oxford)
L'Internet Juridique (France)
Journal of Information Law & Technology (Univs. of Warwick and Strathclyde)
Society for Computers & Law eMag (UK)

Law Sources and Statutes
Computers and Information Technology Laws
FedLaw (GSA)
FindLaw (comprehensive list of law sites)
LawCrawler (meta-search for legal sources)

Supreme Court Decisions 1937-1975
United States Code (Cornell)
U.S. Constitution (Cornell)
U.S. Constitution (Yale)
World Wide Web Law Links (Blumenfeld & Cohen)

Lists of Links
Berkman Center for Internet & Society (Harvard Law)
CompLaw: The Computer Law Resource
CyberLaw (Haim Ravia, Law Office)
Cyberlaw Encyclopedia
CyberSpace Law Center (Katich, Werse & Petillo)
CyberSpace Law Links
Cyberspace Law Subject Index (John Marshall)
E-Law Locator
Electronic Commerce and Electronic Data Interchange (John Yates.  More general than it sounds -- a general list of ecommerce law materials)
Electronic Commerce and Internet Law Resource Center (Perkins Coie LLP)
Internet and World Wide Web Issues
Internet Library of Law and Court Decisions (Philips Nizer)
Internet Regulation (Blumenfeld & Cohen)
KuesterLaw: the technology law resource
Law and the Net (Steptoe & Johnson)
Law of Electronic Commerce (Univ of Hull, U.K.)
Legal Department@AOL
Netlitgation (Sugarman Rogers Barshak & Cohen)
Perkins Coie Internet Case Digest
UCLA Online Institute for Cyberspace Law and Policy
WIPO Electronic Commerce and Intellectual Property

Cyber Law Journal

e-business (ZDNet)
e-commerce update (Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Australia)

Cyberspace Law for Non-Lawyers (Cyberspace Law Institute)
Ecommerce A to Z (Brown & Bain)

Law and the Internet 1998 (A. Michael Froomkin)
Legal Aspects of Internet Commerce (A. Pollock)


Federal Electronic Commerce Program Office
Federal Trade Commission
United States Patent and Trademark Office

Domain Names
Approved Agreements among ICANN, the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, and Network Solutions
Management of Internet Names and Addresses

Intellectual Property

The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age (National Research Council) What Every Business Needs to Know About Trademarks, Copyrights, and Security on the Internet (Alschuler Grossman & Pines LLP)

Interactive Gift Express v. Compuserve (patent on on-line ordering)
Ticketmaster v. Microsoft
(trademark implications of hyperlinks)
Washington Post v. TotalNews (trademark implications of hyperlinks)

Berne Convention
Copyright and Intellectual Property (From Telecom Information Resources on the Internet)
Copyright Issues (David Loundy)
Copyright Website
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (94-page pdf file)
Imprimatur Electronic Copyright Management Systems
Short Analysis of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (Digital Future Coalition)
U.S. Copyright Act (17 U.S.C. §101 et seq.)
U.S. Copyright Regulations (37 C.F.R. §201 et seq.)
Universal Copyright Convention

Intellectual Property (Varian's list)
Readings on Information and Intellectual Property (MIT)

U.S. Copyright Office
U.S. Patent & Trademark Office

European Patent Office
Japanese Patent Office
World Intellectual Property Organization

IP Law Center (Law News Network)

IP: The Journal of Law and Policy for High Technology
IP Worldwide

Lists of Links
Intellectual Property (ABA)
Intellectual Property (CyberSpace Law Center)
Intellectual Property (Fenwick & West)
WIPO Electronic Commerce and Intellectual Property

Ecommerce Patents (NC State)
IBM Patent Server
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
Patent Bibliographic Database (USPTO)
Patent Cooperation Treaty
Patent Search (STO)
Software Patent News
U.S. Patent Act (35 U.S.C. 1 et seq.)
U.S. Patent Regulations (37 C.F.R. §1 et seq.)

Trademarks and Domain Names
AntiCybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (1999)
Trademark Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual
Trademark and Unfair Competition Issues (David Loundy)
Trademark Issues Related to Metatagging on the World Wide Web (Cedric Laurant)
Trademarks and the Internet (Perkins Coie)
Trademarks, Domain Names and Related IP Issues on the Internet (Diane Cabell)
U.S. Trademark Act (15 U.S.C. §1051 et seq.)
U.S. Trademark Regulations (37 C.F.R. §2 et seq.)

International Law

Law and Borders -- The Rise of Law in Cyberspace (Johnson & Post)
Taxation of Internet Commerce (Muskovitch)

Canadian Internet Law Resource Page (Michael Geist)

Digital Signatures
Survey of International Electronic and Digital Signature Initiatives (ILPF)

European Union
Electronic Commerce and the European Union: Legal Aspects


Hague Conference on Private International Law
Laws by Country (

Federal Data Protection Act (BGB1.I 1990 S. 2954)
Information and Communication Services Act
Law of Electronic and Internet Commerce in Germany

Electronic Commerce Act

Lists of links

New Zealand
New Zealand Electronic Commerce

Law of the Russian Federation on Information, Informatisation and Information Protection

El Derecho, las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones

South Africa
Business Guide to Internet Law (Werksmans)
The E-commerce Debate

UN Model Law
UN Model Law on Electronic Commerce


Lists of links
Internet Governance, Domain Name and IP Number Policy (From Telecom Information Resources on the Internet.
Internet Law (Advocacy Network)


Business Internet Jurisdiction (Drescher & Associates)
Choice of Law in Internet-Based Controversies (Fram & Purcell)
Compuserve v. Patterson:Creating Jurisdiction Through Internet Contacts (Conner)
Establishing Personal Jurisdiction for Internet Transactions (Joan Henry)
Internet Jurisdiction (Christopher Wolf)
Jurisdiction in Cyberspaces: A Theory of International Spaces (Menthe)
Jurisdiction Online (IP Warehouse)

Lists of Links
Internet Jurisdiction Hyperlink Guide (ABA)
Jurisdiction (CyberSpace Law Center)

Jurisdiction Over Person & Property (


Lists of links
Legislation and Regulations (From Telecom Information Resources on the Internet


Surety Technologies, Inc.


Lists of links
Electronic Commerce Policy (From Telecom Information Resources on the Internet.
Policy and Law (Varian's list)
Telecom Policy and Regulation (From Telecom Information Resources on the Internet.)

United States Government Electronic Commerce Policy

Center for Democracy & Technology
Cyberspace Law Institute
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Electronic Privacy Information Center
UCLA Online Institute for Cyberspace Law and Policy


Internet Privacy Law (Timonthy Walton)
Privacy of Electronic Documents (David Loundy)

Jessup-Morgan v. AOL (defamation by ISP)
Judnick v. DoubleClick, Inc.
(collecting information without consent)

Privacy - A Necessary Part of the Cookie Recipe (T. P. Etzel)

Federal Trade Commission
FTC Privacy Initiatives
Public Workshop on Online Profiling

See how much a website learns about you when you visit.

Identity Theft
Identity Theft website

EU Data Protection Law and Online Services: Regulatory Responses (Europa)
EU Protection Directive (Perkins Coie)
European Privacy Directive: Salient Provisions (Perkins Coie)
Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (C-54, Canada)

Lists of links
Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)

Privacy (ABA)
Privacy (CyberSpace Law Center)
Privacy (From Telecom Information Resources on the Internet)
Readings on Privacy (MIT)
See how much a website learns about you when you visit.
Security, Privacy and Encryption (Varian's list)
W3C Privacy Overview

interMute (advertising blocker)
Internet Privacy Coalition
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998
Electronic Communications Privacy Act (18 U.S.C. §§2510, 2710, 3121)
Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act (amending 18 U.S.C. §1028)
Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978

Introduction to Privacy and the Internet (

Electronic Workplace (Mathias & Barrett)
Rights and Wrongs of Workplace Snooping (Laura Hartman)
Windows Nine-to-Five: Smyth v. Pillsbury and the Scope of an Employee’s Right of Privacy in Employer Communications (Rod Dixon)


Lists of Links
Securities (ABA)


Garbage In: Emerging Media and Regulation of Unsolicited Commercial Solicitations (Carroll)
Information v. Commercialization: The Internet and Unsolicited Electronic Mail (Mika)

Lists of links
Fight Against Spamming & Legal Issues on Bulk Email (Groupweb)
Spam, Unsolicited E-mail (from Telecom Information Resources on the Internet)

Spamming - Commercial Speech and Trespass (Cyberspace Law Center)

Junk Email Legislation (AOL)
Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 ("Junk Fax" Law) (47 U.S.C. §227)
Washington State Law Prohibiting Unsolicited Electronic Mail (Ch. 149, Laws of 1998)


National Bellas Hess, Inc. v. Department of Revenue of Ill., 386 U.S. 753 (1967)
Quill Corp. v. North Dakota, 504 U.S. 298 (1992)

E-commerce Taxation (Prof. Claudia Gramaccia) Good source for EU references

Internet Tax Freedom Act
Internet Tax Freedom Act Homepage (Rep. Christopher Cox)
Text of Act

State-by-State Internet Tax Summaries (Vertex)

Lists of links
CyberSpace Law Center: Taxation
LibertySearch: Taxation
Tax Directory: Internet Trade
Taxation (ABA)

15 U.S.C §381


Convergence of IT, Telecoms and Broadcasting ­­  Regulation Issues (OFTEL, UK)
Telecommunications Regulation (ITU)

Lists of links
LibertySearch: Telecommunications

Telecommunications Act of 1996

Uniform Acts

Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act

2B Guide (Kunze)

Uniform Electronic Transactions Act
ETA Forum