Electronic Voting Links

The links below are intended to supplement the course 17-803/17-400, Electronic Voting  This page is maintained by Michael Shamos and is still under construction.  Please report omissions and dead links to the author.  © 2004 Michael I. Shamos.

Topics covered:

Advocacy Groups
Direct-Recording Electronic (DRE) Systems
Election Law
Human Factors
Independent Testing Authorities
Internet Voting
Lists of Links
Optical Scan
Organization Websites
Paper Trails
Punched Cards
State Official Websites
Voting Theory

Advocacy Groups

Center for Voting and Democracy
Election Technology Council
Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
National Committee for Voting Integrity
Open Voting Consortium


Towards Secure and Practical e-Elections in the New Era (Burmeister & Magkos)

Homomorphic encryption


Neff's protocol

Direct-Recording Electronic (DRE) Systems

Lists of Links

Analysis of an Electronic Voting System (Kohno et al -- the Rubin Report).  Cached
Risk Assessment Report Diebold AccuVote-TS Voting System and Processes. (the SIAC Report).  Cached
State of Maryland Diebold AccuVote-TS Voting System Security Action PlanCached
Trusted Agent Report Diebold AccuVote-TS Voting System. (the RABA Report).  Cached

Touchscreen Technology
elo Touchsystems

Election Law

Election Law sites
Moritz College of Law (Ohio State)

Federal Statutes and Regulations
DOD Directive 1000.4 (Federal Voting Assistance Program)
National Voter Registration Act of 1993, 42 U.S.C. §1973gg.
Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, UOCAVA. 42 U.S.C. §1973ff  (Or: pdf version)
Voting Rights Act of 1965, 42 U.S.C. §1973
3 U.S.C.
§1 (Presidential Elections)

Lists of Links
Election Law (Library of Congress)

State Statutes and Regulations
Alabama (Title 17)
Alabama Administrative Code
Alabama Electronic Voting Committee Regulations
Alaska (Title 15)
Arizona (Title 16)
Arkansas (Title 7)
California (Elections Code)
California Regulations (Title 2)
Colorado (Title 1)
Colorado Election Rules (July 21, 2004)
Connecticut (Title 9)
Delaware (Title 15)
District of Columbia Code (Title 1, Chapter 10)
Florida (Title 9)
Florida Division of Elections Rules
Georgia Election Code (Title 21, Ch. 2)
Guam (Title 3)
Guam Administrative Rules (Title 6)
Hawaii (Title 2)
Hawaii Administrative Rules (Title 2)
Idaho (Title 34)
Illinois (Title 10)
Indiana (Title 3)
Iowa Election Laws
Kansas (Chap. 25)
Kentucky Revised Statutes (Title X, see Electronic Voting)
Kentucky Administrative Regulations
Louisiana Election Code (Title 18)
Maine Revised Statutes (Title 21-A)
Maryland Election Code
Massachusetts (Title VIII)
Michigan Election Law (Chapter 168)
Michigan Regulations
Minnesota Rules
Minnesota Statutes (Chapter 200)
Mississippi Election Code
Missouri Revised Statutes
Montana Code (Title 13)
Montana Rules
Nebraska Election Act
Nevada Administrative Code (Chapter 293)
Nevada Revised Statutes (Chapter 293)
New Hampshire Revised Statutes (Title LXIII)
New Jersey Statutes Annotated (Title 19)
New Mexico Statutes Annotated (Title 1)
New York State Consolidated Laws (Chapter 17)
North Carolina Administrative Code (Title 8)
North Carolina General Statutes (Chapter 163)
North Dakota Century Code (Title 16.1)
Ohio Revised Code (Title XXXV)
Oklahoma Administrative Code (Title 230)
Oklahoma Statutes (Title 26)
Oregon Administrative Rules
Oregon Revised Statutes (Title 23)
Pennsylvania Election Code
Rhode Island General Laws (Title 17)
South Carolina Code (Title 7)
South Dakota Codified Laws (Title 12)
Tennessee Code (Title 2)
Tennessee Rules
Texas Election Code
Utah Administrative Code
Utah Code (Title 20A)
Vermont Statutes (Title 17)
Virginia Code (Title 24.2)
Washington (Revised Code Title 29A)
Washington Administrative Code (Title 434)
West Virginia Code (Chapter 3)
West Virginia Rules (search for Title 153)
Wisconsin Administrative Code
Wisconsin Statutes (Ch. 5-12)
Wyoming Rules
Wyoming Statutes (Title 22)


Election Information
Administrative Structure of State Election Offices (FEC)
Election Data Services

Election Law Journal
Electoral Studies (Univ. of Texas)

Antique Ballots (Cal Tech)
History of Voting Machines

Human Factors
Ballot prototypes (MIT)

Independent Testing Authorities (ITAs)

SysTest Labs


Electionworld.org (Elections Around the World)


e-Voting in Estonia (alas, in Estonian)


Election Commission of India
Indian Elections 2004

Commission on Electronic Voting

United Kingdom
Electoral Commission

Internet Voting

EU Cybervote

Lists of Links

Election Resources on the Internet (Manuel Álvarez-Rivera)
Electronic Voting Hotlist (Lorrie Cranor)
getvoting411.us (links to voting organizations)
Swiss Federal Government eVoting Links
Voting and Elections (Doug Jones)

Optical Scan

Characteristics of Contemporary Voting Machines.  Cached

Organization Websites

Election Assistance Commission
Election Center
Election Data Services
EVS (Association of Electronic Voting Systems, Japan)
Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP)
IFES (International Foundation for Election Systems)
Federal Election Commission
National Association of State Election Directors
National Commission on Election Reform
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Voting Technology Initiative (Brennan Center)


Federal Voting System Standards (formerly FEC Standards)
Florida Voting System Standards

State Official Websites

California Secretary of State
Colorado Secretary of State
Connecticut Secretary of State
Delaware Commissioner of Elections
District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics
Florida Division of Elections
Georgia Secretary of State
Guam Election Commission
Hawaii Office of Elections
Idaho Secretary of State
Illinois State Board of Elections
Indiana Secretary of State
Iowa Secretary of State
Kansas Secretary of State
Kentucky Administrative Regulations (Title 31)
Louisiana Secretary of State
Maryland State Board of Elections
Maine Secretary of State
Massachusetts Elections Division
Michigan Secretary of State
Minnesota Secretary of State
Mississippi Secretary of State
New Hampshire Secretary of State
New Jersey Division of Elections
New Mexico Board of Elections
New York Board of Elections
North Carolina Board of Elections
Ohio Elections

Oklahoma State Election Board
Oregon Secretary of State
Pennsylvania Department of State
Puerto Rico Commonwealth Elections Commission
Rhode Island Board of Elections
South Carolina State Election Commission
South Dakota
Tennessee Department of State
Texas Secretary of State
Utah Elections Office
Vermont Secretary of State
Virginia State Board of Elections
Washington Secretary of State
West Virginia
Wisconsin State Elections Board
Wyoming Secretary of State


IFES Buyer's Guide

AccuPoll (paper trail)
Advanced Voting Solutions
Avante International Technology (paper trail)
Diebold Election Systems
Election Systems and Software
     iVotrotronic demo
Guardian Voting Systems
Hart Intercivic
Liberty Election Systems
Nedap (Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek)
Populex (paper trail)
Sequioia Voting Systems

    AVC Edge demo
Scytl (Spain)
Smartmatic (paper trail, used in Venezuela 2004)
Software Improvements (Australia)
Truevote (paper trail)
Vogue Election Products

Voting Technologies International

Private elections

eVACS (Australia)
Millennium Technology
SAVIOC Voting Systems
Voting Solutions (choice voting and ranked-ballot elections)

Voting Theory

Lists of Links
Blind signatures page
Homomorphic encryption page
Threshold cryptography page
Voting Theory and Reform

Voting Systems (worldhistory.com)