Resume of Michael Ian Shamos

Foreign Languages

Bar Admissions
Expert Witness
Legislative Testimony

Legislative Testimony


Contact Information

Digital Libraries
Electronic Voting
In Preparation

Electronic Commerce
Science and Law
Electronic Voting

Personal Data
Contact Information



A.B. (1968) Princeton University (Physics).   Thesis: "An Absorber Theory of Gravitational Radiation".  Advisor: John A. Wheeler.

M.A. (1970) Vassar College (Physics).   Thesis: "An Absorber Theory of Acoustical Radiation."  Advisor: Morton A. Tavel.

M.S. (1972) American University (Technology of Management).

M.S.  (1973) Yale University (Computer Science).

M.Phil. (1974) Yale University (Computer Science).

Ph.D. (1978) Yale University (Computer Science).   Thesis: "Computational Geometry".  Thesis committee: David Dobkin, Martin H. Schultz, Stanley C. Eisenstat.

J.D. (1981) Duquesne University, cum laude.

Foreign Languages

French, Russian (good reading and technical translation skills, fair conversational ability).

Academic Experience

Distinguished Career Professor, Institute for Software Research and Language Technologies Institute, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University (2001- ). Principal Systems Scientist (1998-2001).  Principal Lecturer (2002-2003).  Teaching Professor (2003- ).  Faculty, Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University (1999-2004).

Co-Director, Carnegie Mellon Institute for eCommerce (1998- ).  Vice-Chair, University Research Council (2000-2002).  Director, eBusiness Technology degree program (2003-).

Director, Universal Library, Carnegie Mellon University (1998-).

Visiting Professor, Department of Computer Science, The University of Hong Kong (2001- ).

Adjunct Faculty, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Computer Science (1981-1998). Formerly Assistant Professor, Carnegie Mellon University, Departments of Computer Science and Mathematics (1975-81), Dept. of Statistics (1978-81).

Recent courses taught (Carnegie Mellon):
Algorithm Design and Analysis 15-451 (Comp. Sci.)
Intellectual Capital and its Protection 45-886 (MBA)
Ecommerce Technology 20-751 (MSEC program)
Electronic Payment Systems 20-753 (MSEC program), 96-774 (MSIT program)
Ecommerce Law and Regulation 46-840 (MSEC program)
Electronic Voting 17-803
Ubiquitous Computing, 96-761
Law of Computer Technology, 08-732 (Computation, Organizations and Society Program)

Honors and Awards

Fellow, Society of the Sigma Xi (1974-83).

IBM Fellowship, Yale University (1974–75).

SIAM National Lecturer (1977–78).

Distinguished Lecturer (computer science), University of Rochester (1978); McGill University (1979).

Duquesne University Law Review (1980–81).

Black & White Scotch Achiever’s Award (first annual, 1991, for contributions to bagpipe musicography).

Industry Service Award of the Billiard and Bowling Institute of America, 1996 (for contributions to billiard history).

Billiard Worldcup Association official referee (2001-)


Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Privacy Technology (2003-2006).

Member of Editorial Board, Electronic Commerce Research Journal (2000-2004).

Member of Editorial Board, Pittsburgh Journal of Technology, Law and Policy (1999-2003).

Dr. Shamos has reviewed scientific papers for Communications of the ACM, Mathematical Reviews, IEEE Computer, IEEE Transactions on Computers, Information Processing Letters, Journal of the ACM and the Journal of Computational Physics.

Contributing Editor, Billiards Digest magazine (1990- ).


Co-inventor with K. Srinivasan, U.S. Patent 7,330,839, "Method and System for Dynamic Pricing," issued February 12, 2008.

Co-inventor with K. Srinivasan, U.S. Patent 7,421,278, "Method and Apparatus for Time-Aware and Location-Aware Marketing," issued September 2, 2008.

Co-inventor with K. Srinivasan, U.S. Patent 7,747,465, "Determining the Effectiveness of Internet Advertising," issued June 29, 2010.

Legal Experience

Bar Admissions

Supreme Court of Pennsylvania (1981– ).

United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania (1981– ).

United States Patent and Trademark Office (1981– ).

United States Tax Court (1982– ).

United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (1982– ).

United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (1982– ).

United States Supreme Court (1985– ).

United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (1985– ).

Expert Witness

Dr. Shamos serves as an expert witness in computer software and electronic voting cases.  His clients include:

American Association of People with Disabilities
Bertelsmann AG
Clubcorp, Inc.
C. W. Communications (Computerworld)
eBay, Inc.
Florida Attorney General
Freemarkets, Inc.
INCO Alloys
Levinson Steel
Maryland Attorney General
Powerquest Corp.
The Princeton Review, Inc.
Target Corporation
20th Century Fox
UBS Warburg
Universal Studios
Visa International

See full list.

Legislative Testimony

Testimony before the Texas Legislature concerning electronic voting, Austin, Texas, 1987.  Result: passage of the Texas Electronic Voting Law.

Invited testimony before the British House of Lords, Subcommittee B of the European Union Committee, April 20, 2000.   Subject: European regulation of eCommerce.

Testimony before the Pennsylvania Legislature State Government Committee concerning electronic voting, Philadelphia, March 10, 2004.

Testimony before the United States Commission on Civil Rights concerning electronic voting, Washington, DC, April 9, 2004.

Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science concerning voting system certification, Washington, DC, June 24, 2004.

Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on House Administration concerning voting system security, Washington, DC, July 7, 2004.

Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform concerning electronic voting technology, Washington, DC, July 20, 2004.

Testimony on DREs and paper trails before the Virginia Legislature Study Commission on Voting System Certification and Security, Richmond, VA, August 16, 2004.

Testimony before the Election Assistance Commission, Technical Guidelines Development Committee, Subcommittee on Computer Security and Transparency, Gaithersburg, MD, Sept. 20, 2004.

Testimony before the House Ways and Means Committee of the Maryland General Assembly on voting machine paper trails, Annapolis, MD, December 7, 2004.

Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on House Administration concerning paper trails, Washington, DC, September 28, 2006.

Testimony before the U.S. Election Assistance Commission concerning the Voting System Testing and Certification Program, Washington, DC, October 26, 2006.

Testimony before the Georgia State Board of Elections, Powder Springs, GA, December 21, 2007.

Testimony before the Maryland House of Delegates Ways and Means Committee, Annapolis, MD, January 18, 2007.

Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration on the Ballot Integrity Act of 2007, Washington, DC, July 25, 2007.


Dr. Shamos has served as an arbitrator in computer-related disputes for the American Arbitration Association.

Electronic Voting

Dr. Shamos has served as an examiner of electronic voting systems and consultant on electronic voting.

Member, Sarasota Source Code Audit Task Force, Florida Secretary of State (2007-2008)

Consultant to the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (2006).

Consultant to the Pennsylvania Secretary of the Commonwealth (2004- ).

Project SERVE Security Peer Review Group (2003).

Attorney General's Designee for electronic voting examinations, State of Texas (1987-2000).

Attorney for Counsel to the Secretary of the Commonwealth, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. (1998-2000, 2004- ); Statutory Examiner for electronic voting, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1980-1996).

Consultant to Montgomery County, Pennsylvania (1996).

Consultant to the Secretary of State of Nevada (1996).

Consultant to the Delaware Legislature (1989).

Consultant to the Secretary of State of West Virginia (1984).

Business Experience

President, Expert Engagements LLC, expert witness firm (2003-present).

President, Unus, Inc., database publishing software (formerly Unilogic, Ltd.) (1979-1987).

President, Lexeme Corporation (1984-87), software language translation products.

Managing Partner, Shamos and Tchen (1978-82), computer consulting firm.

Supervisory Programmer, National Cancer Institute (1970-72), while a commissioned officer in the United States Public Health Service (O-3).

Associate Engineer, IBM Corporation (1968-70), design of manufacturing information systems.


Morgan Stanley Dean Witter (2000-2002 ).  Contact: Stephanie Homes.

McKinsey & Co. (1999-2001).   Contact: Will Draper (BTO Stamford)

Bell Atlantic Corporation (1999-).  Contact: John Martin.

LG-CNS, South Korea (2002-).  Project to automate the Korean court system.


Unilogic, Ltd. (1979–87) (later Unus, Inc. d/b/a Cygnet Publishing Technologies, 1987- ).  Database publishing software.

The Billiard Archive (1983– ).  Historical nonprofit foundation.

Lexeme Corporation (1984-1987).  Computer source language translation.

Insurance Technology Corporation (1992–1995).  IT consulting for the insurance industry.

Personal Data

Date of birth: April 21, 1947.

Married to Julie Shamos (formerly Julie Van Allen), August 12, 1973.

Children: Josselyn (born May 20, 1982), Alexander (born August 3, 1984).

Military Status: Veteran (Commissioned Officer, U.S. Public Health Service, 1970-72).

Health: excellent

Contact Information

Office Address:
     6707 Gates Hillman Complex
     5000 Forbes Avenue
     Carnegie Mellon University
     Pittsburgh, PA  15213
          Office Telephone:  412-268-8193
          Office Fax: 412-268-6298

Home Address:
     605 Devonshire Street
     Pittsburgh, PA  15213-2904
          Home Telephone:  412-681-8398
          Home Fax: 412-681-8916




1. Computational Geometry: An Introduction, with F. P. Preparata.  Springer-Verlag (1985, revised ed., 1991), 390 pp.  ISBN 0387961313. 

2. Вычислительная геометрия: введение.  Russian translation of "Computational Geometry: An Introduction." Moscow: Mir Publishers (1989).  ISBN 5030010416.

3. Keisan kikagaku nyumon Japanese translated by T. Asano and T. Asano of Computational Geometry: An Introduction, with F. P. Preparata.   Soken Shuppan (Jul. 1992).  ISBN 4795263213.

4. Handbook of Academic Titles.  193 pp. (Jan. 2011).  An encyclopedia of various academic designations used at over 1000 colleges and universities in the United States.

5. Geometria obliczeniowa.  Wprowadzenie. Polish translation of "Computational Geometry: An Introduction."  Warsaw: Helion (2003) 392 pp.  ISBN 83-7361-098-7.

6.  Shamos's Catalog of the Real Numbers.   A list, patterned after Sloane & Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press (1995).  Over 10,000 interesting real numbers arranging in lexical order by decimal expansion, with accompanying formulas.

Book Chapters

1. "Privacy and Public Records," chapter 16 in Personal Information Management, Jones & Teevan, eds., Univ. of Washington Press (2007), ISBN978-0-295-98737-8.


1. "On the Piezoelectric Effect in Bone," with M. H. Shamos and L. S. Lavine.  Nature 197:81 (1963).

2. "An Absorber Theory of Acoustical Radiation," with M. A. Tavel. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 54:46–49 (1973).

3. "Problems in Computational Geometry." Unpublished book manuscript (1974, revised 1977). Distributed in photocopy.

4. "Geometric Complexity." Proceedings of the Seventh Annual ACM Symposium on Automata and Theory of Computation (May 1975) 224–233.

5. "Closest-point Problems," with D. J. Hoey. Proceedings of the Sixteenth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Oct. 1975) 151–162.

6. "Divide and Conquer in Multidimensional Space," with J. L. Bentley. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual ACM Symposium on Automata and Theory of Computing (May 1976) 220–230.

7. "Geometric Intersection Problems," with D. J. Hoey. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Oct. 1976) 208–215.

8. "Lower Bounds from Complex Function Theory," with G. Yuval. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Oct. 1976) 268–273.

9. "Geometry and Statistics: Problems at the Interface." In Algorithms and Complexity: New Directions and Recent Results, J. F. Traub, ed., Academic Press (1976) 251–280.

10. "Divide and Conquer for Linear Expected Time," with J. L. Bentley. Information Processing Letters 7 (1977) 87–91.

11. "A Problem in Multivariate Statistics: Algorithm, Data Structure, and Applications," with J. L. Bentley. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Allerton Conference on Communications, Control and Computers (Sep. 1977) 193–201.

12. "Optimal Algorithms for Structuring Geographic Data," with J. L. Bentley. Proceedings of the Harvard Conference on Topological Data Structures for Geographic Information Systems (Oct. 1977) 43–51.

13. "Computational Geometry." Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University (1978).  University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI.

14. "Time and Space," with A. R. Meyer. In Perspectives on Computer Science, A. K. Jones, ed. Academic Press (1978).

15. Combinatorics on Graphs I: Graph Polynomials. Unpublished book manuscript (1978).

16. "Robust Picture Processing Operators and Their Implementation as Circuits." Proceedings of the Fall 1978 Workshop on Image Processing, Carnegie Mellon University (1978).

17. "A practical system for source language translation," with T. R. Kueny and P. L. Lehman. Proceedings of the National Conf. on Software Reuseability and Maintainability, pp. B-1 – B-12, Washington, DC (Sep. 1986).

18. "The Early Years of Computational Geometry – A Personal Memoir." Advances in Discrete and Computational Geometry (B. Chazelle, J. E. Goodman, and R. Pollack, eds.), Contemporary Mathematics, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence (1998).

19. Overcounting Functions.   A systematic method of transforming certain multiple summations into single summations, with new number-theoretic results.

20.  Property Enumerators and a Partial Sum Theorem.  A new result allowing rapid symbolic evaluation of certain types of double summations.



1. "Machines as readers: a solution to the copyright problem." J. Zhejiang Univ. Science 6A, 11, pp. 1179-1187 (Nov. 2005).


1. "Japanese Digital Information Policy, Intellectual Property and Economics," in "Digital Information Organization in Japan," International Technology Research Institute (1998).



1. "Glossary of Electronic Voting."


2. "Voting System Certification — An Examiner’s View." Invited paper presented at the Election Center Conference, Reno, Nevada (Sep. 1989).

3. "Electronic Voting — Evaluating the Threat." Proc. Third ACM Conf. on Computers, Freedom & Privacy,  San Francisco, CA (Mar. 1993).

4. "Paper v. Electronic Voting Records — An Assessment."  Proc. 14th ACM Conf. on Computers, Freedom & Privacy, Berkeley, CA (Apr. 2004). 

5. "Evaluation of Voting Systems," with P.L. Vora, B. Adida, R. Bucholz, D. Chaum, D. Dill, D. Jefferson, D. Jones, W. Lattin, A. Rubin and M. Young, Commun. ACM 47(11):144 (2004).

6. "Voting as an Engineering Problem." The Bridge (publication of the National Academy of Engineering), Summer 2007, pp. 35-39.

Published Reports

7. "Software and Security Analysis of the ES&S iVotornic Voting Machine Firmware," with Yasinsac et al., February 23, 2007.  Review commissioned by the Secretary of State of Florida to investigate irregularities in the Congressional District 13 election of 2006.



1.  Pool.   New York: Mallard Press division of Bantam-Doubleday-Dell Promotional Book Company (Aug. 1991). 128 pp.  ISBN 0-7924-5310-7.

2.  Le billard et le billard américain.  Paris: Minerva, 1992, reprinted 1997.  128 pp. Translation by Jean-Yves Prate of the author’s American book, Pool. ISBN 2–8307–0160–7 (1992), 2-8814-3135-6 (1997).

3 The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards.  New York: Lyons & Burford (1993).   310 pp. ISBN 1-55821-219-1.

4. Pool Snooker Carambola.  Padua: Facto Edizioni (1993). 128 pp. Italian translation of Pool. Translated by Elisabetta Bezzon. ISBN 88-85860-20-6.  The first English-language billiard book ever published in Italian.

5.  Pool.   New York: Friedman/Fairfax (Jun. 1994). 128 pp.  ISBN 1-56799-061-4.   Paperback edition of the author's 1991 Pool.

6.  Shooting Pool: The People, the Passion, the Pulse of the Game, with photographs by George Bennett.  New York: Artisan (Jun. 1998).  144 pp.  ISBN 1-885183-95-X.    A photographic survey of pool in the U.S. in 1997.  A Book-of-the-Month Club bonus selection (Fall, 1998).

7. Setting the Stage for Fifty Years. Coralville, IA: Billiard Congress of America (Jun. 1998). 88 pp.   A history of the Billiard Congress of America.

8.  The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards.  New York: Lyons Press (1999).  320 pp.  ISBN 1-55821-797-5.  An expanded and revised edition of The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards.

9.  The Complete Book of Billiards.  New York: Gramercy Books (2000).  306 pp.  ISBN 0-517-20869-5.  Reissue of author's 1993 The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards.

In Preparation



1.  A Graph-Theoretic Model of Electronic Payment Systems



1.  A Dictionary of American Intellectual Property

Invited Talks


 "The U.S., Korea and the Internet Bubble."  Korea International Trade Association (Seoul, July 2003).

"Electronic Judiciary Services in the United States."  Address at the Supreme Court of Korea (Dec. 2004).

"eGovernment in the United States."  Public address at the University of Hong Kong (Feb. 2005).

"Global SCM as a Cross-Border eCommerce Model," Korea International Trade Association, Seoul, Korea (Mar. 2007).

"Innovate or Die."  Invited talk at the Verizon Leadership Meeting, Morristown, NJ (Jun. 2007).

"A Formula for Innovation."  Public address at the University of Hong Kong (Feb. 2008).


"Digital Property in the 21st Century."  Keynote address for the Spring Meeting of the American Intellectual Property Law Association, Pittsburgh, PA (May 2000).  View slides.

"Who Owns This Algorithm?" Carnegie Mellon University (Nov 1991); Microelectronics and Computer Corporation (Jan. 1992); Univ, of Texas at Austin (Jan. 1992); UCLA (Feb. 1992).

"New Computer Technology and Its Application to Worker’s Compensation." Forum IV, Newport Beach, CA (Feb. 1992).

"The Office of the Future, If There Is One." 1994 IAIABC Conf., Pittsburgh, PA (Sep. 1994).

"The Fringes of Infringement." University of Texas, Austin, TX (Sep. 1995).

"The Arts and the Internet." Allegheny County Bar Association Continuing Legal Education course (June 26, 1996).

"The Universal Information Resource." Inventing the Future, Symposium in Honor of Raj Reddy’s 60th Birthday, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (May 1998).

"The Universal Library."   University of Texas at Austin (Sep. 1998)

"The Universal Library and Its Role in Scientific Information."  Keynote address to the RNA Society symposium on Emerging Sources of RNA Information, Arlington, VA (Dec. 8, 1998).

"Digital Property in the 21st Century."  Luncheon address to the American Intellectual Property Law Association, Pittsburgh, PA (May. 2000).

"The Future of eCommerce."  Address to the Association for Corporate Growth, Pittsburgh, PA (Dec. 2001).

"Copyright Protection and Distance Learning."  Hong Kong Intellectual Property Office (Feb. 2002).

"Surprises in Experimental Mathematics."  Carnegie Mellon University Mathematics Seminar (Feb. 2002).

"The Universal Dictionary." Address at International Institute of Information Technologies (IIIT), Hyderabad, India (Jan. 2003).

"The Million Book Projects."  Public address at the University of Hong Kong (Jan. 2003).

"Mathematics and the Privacy Laws."  ALADDIN Workshop on Privacy in D.A.T.A., Pittsburgh, PA (Mar. 2003).

"Machines as readers: a solution to the copyright problem."  1st Int'l Conf. on Universal Digital Library, Hangzhou, China (Nov. 2005).

"University Technology Transfer: How to Fix It." Asia Conference on Technology Transfer (ACTT) 2006, Seoul, S. Korea (Mar. 2006).

"How Big a Problem is Copyright"?  USAIN Conference, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (Oct. 2006).

"Digital Ownership."  2d Intl. Conf. on Universal Digital Library, Alexandria, Egypt (Nov. 2006).

"How Did It (Computational Geometry) Start?"  Keynote address at the 20th Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry, Montreal, Canada (Aug. 2008).


"Voting System Certification — An Examiner’s View."  Election Center Conference, Reno, Nevada (Sep. 1989).

"Electronic Voting — Evaluating the Threat." Third Conf. on Computers, Freedom and Privacy, San Francisco, CA (Mar. 1993).

"What's Happing in Florida?" Carnegie Mellon University (Nov. 2001)."

"Electronic Voting: The Technology of Democracy." Hong Kong University (Feb. 2004).

"Theory v. Practice in Electronic Voting."  DIMACS (Rutgers Univ., May 2004).

"HAVA: Are We Ready?"  Panel at the League of Women Voters National Convention, Washington, DC (Jun. 2004).

"Testing Voting Machines."  Panel at the American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC (Jun. 2004).

"Electronic Voting: Promise and Peril."  Talk at the Moritz College of law, Ohio State University (Sep. 2004).

"Is e-voting ready for prime time: Legal and technical issues regarding the upcoming Presidential election."  Panel at John Marshall Law School, Chicago, IL (Oct.  2004).

"Is Electronic Voting Reliable?"  Talk to the Kiwanis Club of Dubuque, Iowa (Feb. 2005).

"The Top Ten Problems in Practical Electronic Voting."  Int'l Workshop on Mathematics and Democracy, Ettore Majorana Centre, Erice, Sicily (Sept. 2005).

"Why Don't We Have Paper Trails in Pennsylvania?"  Carnegie Mellon Univ. CyLab Seminar, Pittsburgh, PA (Jan 2006).

"Paper Trails and the Pennsylvania Certification Process."  County Commissioners Association of Pennsylvania 2006 Spring Conference, Harrisburg, PA (Mar. 2006).

"The 2006 Elections: Are We Ready?"  Panel at the American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC (Sept. 2006).

"What's Right with Electronic Voting?"  University Lecture Series, Carnegie Mellon University (Oct. 12, 2006).

"What Happened in Yesterday's Election?"  Center for Research on Computation and Society, Harvard University (Nov. 8, 2006).

"What Happened in Sarasota County"?  Council on Government Ethics Laws, New Orleans, LA (Dec. 6, 2006).

"What Happened to 18,000 Votes? Results of the Sarasota Source Code Audit." Carnegie Mellon University (Apr. 16, 2007).

"Opscan Voting: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly."  Florida State Association of Supervisors of Elections, Destin, Florida (May 24, 2007).

"Voting Machine Fraud."  University of Pittsburgh (Nov. 11, 2008)